Resources

  • European Commission. Breast cancer burden in EU-27.
  • European Commission. European Cancer Information System.
  •  Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for International Agency for Research on Cancer. Latest global cancer data: Cancer burden rises to 19.3 million new cases and 10.0 million cancer deaths in 2020. Press release 292. 15 December 2020.
  • Research on Cancer. Statistics for Europe are based on WHO Europe region of 53 countries. Data for Andorra, Monaco and San Marino are not included
  • Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, et al. Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in Women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101(5):296-305.
  • Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, et al. Light alcohol drinking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2012;24(2):301- 8. 2008.
  • Boyle, P., Levin, B. (eds.). World Health Organisation. International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Cancer Report 2008.
  • Buja A, Pierbon M, Lago L, et al. Breast Cancer Primary Prevention and Diet: An Umbrella Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 1;17(13):4731.
  • Charlton BM, Rich-Edwards JW, et al. Oral contraceptive use and mortality after 36 years of follow-up in the Nurses’ Health Study: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2014; 349:g6356.
  • Chlebowski RT. Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome. The Breast 2013; 22 Suppl 2:S30-37.
  • Chong F, Wang Y, Song M, et al. Sedentary behavior and risk of breast cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis from prospective studies. Breast Cancer. 2021 Jan;28(1):48-59.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95 067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer 2002;87(11):1234-45.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence. Lancet 2019;394:1159-1168.
  • Fiolet T, Srour B, Sellem L, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ. 2018;360:k322.
  • Gaudet MM, Carter BD, Brinton LA, et al. Pooled analysis of active cigarette smoking and invasive breast cancer risk in 14 cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46:881-93.
  • Harris HR, Willett WC, Terry KL, et al. Body fat distribution and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103(3):273-278.
  • Key J, Hodgson S, Omar R, et al. Meta- analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Cause Control 2006;17(6):759-70.
  • Kossman DA, Williams NI, Domchek SM, et al. Exercise lowers estrogen and progesterone levels in premenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer. J Appl Physiol 2011;111(6):1687-93.
  • Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al.; International Agency for Research on Cancer Handbook Working Group. Body Fatness and Cancer–Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(8):794-798.
  • Lee J, Lee J, Lee DW, et al. Sedentary work and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Occup Health. 2021;63(1):e12239.
  • Matta M, Huybrechts I, Biessy C, et al. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and breast cancer risk in 9 European countries. BMC Med. 2021;19(1):81.
  • Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, et al. Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk. a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trials.” JAMA Oncol. 2015;1(5):611-621.
  • Poggio F, Del Mastro L, Bruzzone M, et al. Safety of systemic hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2022;191:269-275.
  • Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. Bull D BMJ 2007;335:1134.
  • Schmitz KH, Williams NI, Kontos D, et al. Dose–response effects of aerobic exercise on estrogen among women at high risk for breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015;154:309-318.
  • Wild CP, Weiderpass E, Stewart BW (eds.). World Cancer Report: Cancer Research for Cancer Prevention. World Health Organization, Geneva 2020.
  • Women’s Health Initiative Study.
  • World Health Organization. Alcohol and cancer in the WHO European Region: an appeal for better prevention. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020.
  • Ballard-Barbash R, Friedenreich CM, Cournva KS et al. Physical activity biomarker and disease outcomes in cancer survivors: a systematic review. J Nat Cancer Institute 2012;104:815-840.
  • Boing L, Vieira MCS, Moratelli J, et al. Effects of exercise on physical outcomes of breast cancer survivors receiving hormone therapy – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2020;141:71-81.
  • Cannioto RA, Hutson A, Dighe S, et al. Physical activity before, during, and after chemotherapy for high-risk breast cancer: relationships with survival. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2021;113(1):54-63.
  • Chlebowski RT. Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome. The Breast 2013; 22 Suppl 2:S30-37.
  • Coates S, Winer EP, Goldhirsch A, et al. Tailoring therapies – improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2015. Ann Oncol (2015) 26 (8): 1533-1546 first published online May 4, 2015.
  • Irwin ML, McTiernan A, Manson JE, et al. Physical activity and survival in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Prevention Res (Philadelphia, Pa). 2011;4(4):522-529.
  • Lee K, Kruper L, Dieli-Conwright CM, et al. The impact of obesity on breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Curr Oncol Rep. 2019;21(5):41.
  • Protani M, Coory M, Martin JH, Effect of obesity on survival of women with breast cancer: systematic review and analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;123(3):627-35.
  • Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, et al. Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in Women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009;101(5):296-305.
  • Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, et al. Light alcohol drinking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2012;24(2):301- 8. 2008.
  • Boyle, P., Levin, B. (eds.). World Health Organisation. International Agency for Research on Cancer. World Cancer Report 2008.
  • Buja A, Pierbon M, Lago L, et al. Breast Cancer Primary Prevention and Diet: An Umbrella Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 1;17(13):4731.
  • Charlton BM, Rich-Edwards JW, et al. Oral contraceptive use and mortality after 36 years of follow-up in the Nurses’ Health Study: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2014; 349:g6356
  • Chlebowski RT. Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome. The Breast 2013; 22 Suppl 2:S30-37.
  • Chong F, Wang Y, Song M, et al. Sedentary behavior and risk of breast cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis from prospective studies. Breast Cancer. 2021 Jan;28(1):48-59.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95 067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer 2002;87(11):1234-45.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence. Lancet 2019;394:1159-1168.
  • Fiolet T, Srour B, Sellem L, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ. 2018;360:k322.
  • Gaudet MM, Carter BD, Brinton LA, et al. Pooled analysis of active cigarette smoking and invasive breast cancer risk in 14 cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46:881-93.
  • Harris HR, Willett WC, Terry KL, et al. Body fat distribution and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103(3):273-278.
  • Key J, Hodgson S, Omar R, et al. Meta- analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Cause Control 2006;17(6):759-70.
  • Kossman DA, Williams NI, Domchek SM, et al. Exercise lowers estrogen and progesterone levels in premenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer. J Appl Physiol 2011;111(6):1687-93.
  • Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al.; International Agency for Research on Cancer Handbook Working Group. Body Fatness and Cancer–Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(8):794-798.
  • Lee J, Lee J, Lee DW, et al. Sedentary work and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Occup Health. 2021;63(1):e12239.
  • Matta M, Huybrechts I, Biessy C, et al. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and breast cancer risk in 9 European countries. BMC Med. 2021;19(1):81.
  • Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, et al. Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk. a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trials.” JAMA Oncol. 2015;1(5):611-621.
  • Poggio F, Del Mastro L, Bruzzone M, et al. Safety of systemic hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2022;191:269-275.
  • Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. Bull D BMJ 2007;335:1134.
  • Schmitz KH, Williams NI, Kontos D, et al. Dose–response effects of aerobic exercise on estrogen among women at high risk for breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015;154:309-318.
  • Wild CP, Weiderpass E, Stewart BW (eds.). World Cancer Report: Cancer Research for Cancer Prevention. World Health Organization, Geneva 2020.
  • Women’s Health Initiative Study.
  • World Health Organization. Alcohol and cancer in the WHO European Region: an appeal for better prevention. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer. Latest global cancer data: Cancer burden rises to 19.3 million new cases and 10.0 million cancer deaths in 2020. Press release 292. 15 December 2020.
  • F. Cardoso, N. Harbeck, L. Fallowfield, S. Kyriakides, E. Senkus, and on behalf of the ESMO Guidelines Working Group
  • O’Shaghnessy, J. (2005). Extending survival with chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. The Oncologist, 10(20), 20-29